David Andelman is a veteran foreign correspondent, author and commentator contributing frequently to CNN on international security policy including nuclear and cyber threats as well as global diplomacy. Andelman recently joined the Centre on National Security at Fordham University Law School as a visiting fellow, and previously served as Editor-in-Chief of the World Policy Journal. His CNN columns received the 2018 Deadline Club Award for Opinion Writing by the prestigious Society of Professional Journalists. Andelman is also the author of A Shattered Peace: Versailles 1919 and the Price We Pay Today, which looks at the origins of many of today’s deepest global crises.
10 RECOMMENDATIONS ADDRESSING SHIFTS IN SECURITY THINKING
For the fifth time since 2010, Friends of Europe brought together a unique coalition of 1700 stakeholders from all over the world – including national governments, international and European institutions, think tanks, media, business and civil society – for a global brainstorm on some of the most pressing security threats. Participants from 122 countries thrashed out fresh and innovative solutions to global security challenges, from hybrid warfare and nuclear proliferation to climate change, conflict and mass migration.
This report brings together our top 10 recommendations addressing practical policy goals and shifts in security thinking, which are underpinned by a realistic roadmap for implementation.
They include :
- Completing the global convention on terrorism including seeking a “common culture” on counter-terrorism and intelligence, for example through the establishment of a “European intelligence academy”.
- Developing and strengthening the European defence capabilities toolkit, through projects such as the recent signing by 23 Member States of a joint notification on the Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO).
- Building national, institutional and community resilience to better withstand hybrid threats, for instance by using models based on the recently launched European Hybrid Centre of Excellence.
- Creating a global cyber convention to set international definitions and rules, which would establish norms on transparency and accountability and set standards on prosecuting offences and legalising responses.
Debating Security Plus is a global online brainstorm that aims to yield concrete recommendations. It builds on Friends of Europe‘s experience with other online debates and gathers several thousand experts around the world. The 2017 event will bring together senior international participants from the military, government and multilateral institutions along with voices from NGOs and civil society, business and industry, the media, think tanks and academia.
This year’s debate will also draw on Debating Europe’s unrivalled community of 2.5m citizens across Europe and beyond. Their involvement in our security policy brainstorm will help bridge the gaps between experts and voters.
In previous years, our security brainstorms have pulled together more than 2000+ participants, and their recommendations were fed into the policy thinking that shaped NATO’s Strategic Concept in 2010 and the EU’s Global Strategy in 2016.
The connections between security, defence, economic development and policies on environmental, migration and social questions are today inescapable. They inform strategic thinking on defence and security structures and capabilities. Security today is as much about ensuring peace and stability through promoting the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals as it is about improving military capabilities.
From 26 September, 13:00 CEST to 28 September 14:00 the international security community will for 48 hours debate ideas relating to six different themes, each introduced by video messages from leading figures of the security and defence sector. Moderators will steer discussions towards concrete recommendations, and will also highlight disagreement as well as consensus. In-depth ‘rapid-fire chats’ will be hosted by partner organisations, allowing participants to zero in on highly specific topics.
Amadeu Altafaj is a seasoned diplomat with many years of experience of working in the EU institutions. He became Catalonia’s Permanent Representative to the EU institutions in 2015. This position has been created as a way to increase the political weight of the already existing Catalan Government Delegation in Brussels. Prior to this assignment, Altafaj served as European Commission’s Spokesperson for Economic Affairs during the Eurozone crisis and as Spokesperson for the European Commissioner of Development and Humanitarian Aid, among other top positions.
Mrs. Beccera is a Member of the European Parliament, working actively on human rights, development as well as on women and equality. She has a background from the private sector, working in communication and marketing as director for multinational companies and NGO:s, such as Action Against Hunger. Since 2016 she holds the position as an independent within ALDE at the European Parliament where she has done important work on gender equality, development and human rights.
Elmar Brok has been a Member of the European Parliament since 1980, best known for his role as chairman of the European Parliament Committee on Foreign Affairs from 1999 to 2007. Brok has held many leadership positions in German and European politics. As a member of the Convention on the Constitution for Europe and in the Committee on Constitutional Affairs, Brok is widely credited with contributing crucially to the Constitution of the European Union. He is currently the President of the Union of European Federalists (UEF).
Paul Carroll is a well-regarded expert on a broad array of nuclear weapons topics, from the history and current status of US plans and programs, to international programs and treaty regimes. In his current capacity, he works on a multimillion dollar initiative designed to stimulate innovation in the fields of nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation and safety and security. For 17 years before joining N Square, Carroll was the Director of Programs at the Ploughshares Fund. Carroll has a particular expertise on the US Department of Energy’s nuclear weapons infrastructure and North Korea.
Patrick Costello is currently Head of the European External Action Service’s team covering Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Egypt. He has 20 years’ experience as an EU official including several years in the private offices of Commissioners Chris Patten, Margot Wallström, as Head of the Private office of Commissioner Karmenu Vella and as diplomatic adviser to European Parliament President Josep Borrell. Costello has also worked in UN Missions in Haiti and South Africa and for the NGO world on human rights in Central America.
Gilles de Kerchove has been the EU’s Counter-Terrorism Coordinator since 2007, where he plays a central role in monitoring the implementation of the EU counter-terrorism strategy. Prior to this position, he served as Director for Justice and Home Affairs at the EU Council Secretariat and was also worked in national government as the Chief of Cabinet to the Belgian Minister of Justice. Kerchove was the Deputy Secretary of the Convention which drafted the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU.
Gadi Evron is the Founder and CEO of Cymmetria, a cyber deception startup. Mr. Evron has 15 years of experience in the field of cybersecurity, having created global professional working groups, global incident response task forces, and written a lot on the topic. Prior to founding Cymmetria, Evron was Vice President of Cybersecurity Strategy for Kaspersky Lab, led PwC’s Cyber Security Center of Excellence in Israel, and was in charge of the Israeli government’s Internet operations.
Mary Fitzgerald is a researcher and analyst specialising in the Mediterranean region with a particular focus on Libya. She has consulted for a number of international organisations including in the areas of peace building and civil society.
She has worked with the International Crisis Group (ICG), the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) among others. She is a Non-Resident Scholar at the Middle East Institute in Washington DC, an Associate Fellow at the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation, King’s College London, and an Associate Fellow at ISPI in Milan. Mary has also worked on wider initiatives with UNESCO, the Anna Lindh Foundation, the British Council and other cultural organisations. Her writing has appeared in publications including Foreign Policy, The New Yorker online, the Washington Post, Financial Times and the Guardian.
Anna Fotyga served as Foreign Minister of Poland from 2006 to 2007 and has been a member of the European Parliament since 2004. She has worked with foreign policy as an adviser to former Polish Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek and she has been the Deputy Mayor of the city Gdansk. Since 2014 she is chair of the European Parliament Subcommittee on Security and Defence.
Solange Ghernaouti is an internationally recognised expert on cybersecurity, cyber-defence and cybercrime related issues. She has contributed to several initiatives organised by international organisations, research centres and law enforcement agencies all around the globe. Moreover, Ghernaouti has authored more than 200 publications and more than twenty-five books on ICT and security issues. For her dedication to cybersecurity, she has been recognised by the Swiss press as one of the most outstanding women in professional and academic circles, and has been named Knight of the Legion of Honour.
An established and experienced diplomat, Ana Gomes has cemented a reputation as a strident supporter and defender of democracy, human rights, social justice and the rule of law. She has previously been involved in the EU Middle East Peace Process and has led several EU election observation missions in Africa and South-East Asia. Gomes is also a vocal critic of the maladministration of EU law by multinational corporations to minimise tax costs and the negative impact this has on European citizens, governance and society.
As an Assistant Secretary General for Defence Investment, Camille Grand leads and oversees NATO’s defence spending and investment strategies. He was previously Director and CEO of the Fondation pour la recherche stratégique (FRS), France’s leading think tank on defence and security. His research and publications focused on defence policy, NATO, nuclear policy and missile defence. In addition to these responsibilities, he has been a member of the United Nations Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters and has represented the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs in international negotiations on nuclear and chemical arms control.
Dr. Sam Gulube was appointed as Secretary for Defence in December 2011, after having served as the Advisor to the Minister of State Security in 2011. A qualified medical doctor and former soldier, Sam Gulube has held a wide spectrum of leadership positions throughout his career. He served as CEO of the Universal Service Agency and he was later appointed as National Medical Director of the National Blood Service during the Apartheid era where his main achievement was to stop racially profiling blood donors.
Pekka Haavisto has extensive knowledge in crisis management and political negotiations. He has served as the EU Special Representative for Sudan and Darfur, UN Special Advisor to the Darfur peace process, and has also led the UN Environment Programme for the post-conflict environmental assessments and projects in the Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq, the Middle East, Liberia and Sudan. Haavisto has been twice a cabinet minister (Minister for International Development and Minister of Environment) and is expected to run for the second time as the Green League candidate in the Finnish Presidential elections.
Kathleen Hicks is a distinguished expert on US foreign policy, national security strategy and strategic futures. Previously, she was a career civil servant in the Office of the Secretary of Defence and Department of Defence (DOD), serving in a variety of capacities. Most notably, she worked as principal Deputy Under-Secretary of Defense for Policy, and Deputy Under-Secretary of Defense for Strategy, Plans, and Forces. For her service, Hicks received numerous recognitions, including distinguished awards from three secretaries of defence and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Since January 2016, Peggy Hicks has served as director of the Thematic Engagement, Special Procedures and Right to Development Division of the UN Human Rights Office (OHCHR). She provides strategic direction to the UN Human Rights Office’s work on a broad range of pressing human rights issues, including human rights in the digital age. From 2005 to 2015, she was global advocacy director at Human Rights Watch, where she was responsible for managing Human Rights Watch’s advocacy team and providing direction to its advocacy worldwide. Ms. Hicks previously served as the director of the Office of Returns and Communities in the UN mission in Kosovo and as Deputy High Representative for Human Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina. She has also worked as the Director of Programs for the International Human Rights Law Group, and as clinical professor of human rights and refugee law at the University of Minnesota Law School. Ms. Hicks is a graduate of Columbia Law School and the University of Michigan.
At the University of Oxford, Dr Annette Idler is the Director of Studies at the Changing Character of War Programme, Senior Research Fellow at the Department of Politics and International Relations and at Pembroke College, and Affiliate at the Latin American Centre. Her work focuses on the interface of conflict, security and transnational organized crime and she has conducted extensive fieldwork in war-torn and crisis-affected countries. Dr Idler has published extensively on security dynamics related to violent non-state groups and advises governments, the United Nations and other international organizations.
With a wealth of experience in humanitarian, development and political affairs, Sigrid Kaag has substantial knowledge of these areas, not only from her work at the United Nations but also her time within the diplomatic service. She previously served as Assistant SecretaryGeneral with the United Nations Development Programme, and prior to that as the Regional Director for the Middle East and North Africa with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in Jordan from 2007 to 2010. Whilst her recent posts have been with the United Nations, earlier in her career Ms Kaag also served her country in its Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and has also worked within the private sector.
Julian King was appointed to his current role in 2016 in the aftermath of the UK’s decision to leave the EU. King has previously served as a British Ambassador to France and Ireland, and held the position of Director General of the Northern Ireland Office. As a Commissioner, he has been responsible for steering the EU’s anti-terrorism strategy, building a sustainable Security Union, and strengthening the common response to further security threats such as organised crime, radicalisation, terrorist propaganda and cybercrime.
Mr. Koenders succeeded Frans Timmermans as Minister of Foreign Affairs in October 2014. Prior to this role, Mr Koenders was Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and head of the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission (MINUSMA) in Mali. In 2011, he was asked by Ban Ki-Moon, to lead a UN mission in Côte d’Ivoire. Between 2010 and 2011 Mr Koenders worked in South Korea as a negotiator on economics and development for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Busan Partnership agreement.
Robert M. Lee is the CEO and Founder of the industrial cyber security company Dragos, Inc., developing solutions for some of the industrial control system community’s hardest cyber security challenges. He is also a non-resident National Cybersecurity Fellow at New America focusing on policy issues relating to the cyber security of critical infrastructure. For his research and focus areas, Lee was named one of Passcode’s Influencers, awarded EnergySec’s Cyber Security Professional of the Year (2015), and included into Forbes’ 30 under 30 for Enterprise Technology (2016).
A distinguished professional with an extensive background in migration, international law and Schengen-related issues, Fabrice Leggeri currently serves as Executive Director of Frontex, the EU agency managing the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders. Before joining Frontex, Leggeri worked at the French Ministry of Interior, where he contributed to drafting the Commission communication, which recommended the creation of Frontex. He previously headed the Division of International and European Law at the French Ministry of Defence and the Division on Irregular Migration at the Ministry of Interior.
With over 30 years of experience in the European Commission, Stefano Manservisi has covered a wide range of topics. Prior to his current position, he served as European Commission Director-General for International Cooperation and Development (DEVCO) and Head of Cabinet for European Commission Vice-President Mogherini, former Commission President Prodi and former Commissioner Monti. He also acted as Director-General for Migration and Home Affairs (HOME) and was Head of the Delegation of the EU to Turkey. In the past, Manservisi has been a visiting professor at the College of Europe, University of Roma III and the University of Bologna.
Throughout his career, General Denis Mercier has acquired extensive experience both as a fighter pilot, having flown a total of more than 3000 flying hours, and as an operational commander. He held a variety of high-level military positions before being promoted to Chief of Staff of the French Air Force. Above all, NATO has been a constant throughout his career, culminating in his appointment as Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, NATO’s most senior strategic command.
Serving as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Estonia, that assumed Presidency of the EU Council in July, Sven Mikser currently focuses his efforts on effectively implementing Estonian Presidency’s priorities in the field of security, migration, and the EU neighbourhood policy, including fulfilling the objectives of the Eastern Partnership. Prior to that, Mikser has acted as Minister of Defence and has been a member of the Estonian Parliament from 1999 – 2014, where he was most involved in the Foreign Affairs and National Defence Committees.
Since Kunio Mikuriya’s appointment as Secretary General, the WCO has enhanced its work with the Global Partnership and bilateral Donors in setting up its counter-WMD programmes. Under Mikuriya’s leadership, the Organization has created several state-of-the-art tools under its Security Programme to enable better border security and international cooperation to counter smuggling and trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials. Prior to that, Mikuriya worked for Japan’s Ministry of Finance where he occupied a variety of senior posts and gained broad experience in trade negotiations, customs, development, and financial policies.
Ambassador Amina Mohamed has had a distinguished career in the public service spanning over 29 years, and has served in a number of key strategic government and international positions. As Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Justice, National Cohesion and Constitutional Affairs, she supervised the drafting of the Constitution of Kenya (2010). Following her current appointment, she has been instrumental in promoting Africa’s agenda in multi-lateral fora including in the World Trade Organisation, and continues to champion for Africa’s voice to be heard within the United Nations System through the proposed United Nations Security Council reforms.
A leading authority on current affairs, war, international aid and foreign policy, Dr. Samantha Nutt is one of the most intrepid and recognized voices in the humanitarian arena and is amongst the most sought-after public speakers in North America. She has worked with children and their families at the frontline of many of the world’s major crises from Iraq to Afghanistan, Somalia to the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Sierra Leone to Darfur, Sudan. Dr. Nutt’s critically-acclaimed book, “Damned Nations: Greed, Guns, Armies and Aid”, was a bestseller.
Monique Pariat currently leads the adoption, implementation and monitoring of the EU’s legislation and policy on migration, asylum and internal security. Prior to her current role, Pariat previously led the EU’s European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (DG ECHO) as Director-General, overseeing the development and implementation of the EU’s humanitarian aid and civil protection mechanisms. She has also previously held numerous senior management posts at the European Commission, specialising in topics ranging from maritime affairs to justice, freedom and security.
Dr. Parsi, a distinguished Middle East foreign policy expert, is the President of the largest Iranian-American grassroots organization in the US, the National Iranian American Council. His books Treacherous Alliance: The Secret Dealings of Iran, Israel and the United States and A Single Roll of the Dice – Obama’s Diplomacy with Iran have made him an award-winning author. He has taught at Johns Hopkins University and George Washington University.
A senior EU diplomat, Giles Portman is responsible for communicating and promoting EU policies in the EU’s eastern neighbourhood, strengthening the region’s media independence, and improving the EU’s capacity to anticipate and respond to disinformation. The EEAS East Stratcom Task Force launched in 2015 the EU vs Disinformation campaign, to better forecast, address and respond to pro-Kremlin disinformation. With a career focused on the EU and its neighbourhood, Portman previously worked on EU-Turkey relations as chair of the working group that negotiated the opening of Turkey’s EU accession negotiations in 2005.
David Schraven leads the investigative newsroom CORRECT!V as Publisher, the first non-profit investigative newsroom in Germany. For supervising the investigation in downing MH17 over eastern Ukraine he was awarded the Grimme Online Award. CORRECT!V have published their investigations and stories in a variety of media outlets, including the weekly political magazine Spiegel, and the weekly newspapers ZEIT and Der Freitag.
Pedro Serrano is a career diplomat with over twenty years of experience in EU affairs. Prior to joining the European Union, Serrano served as a Spanish diplomat. Following this, he held multiple roles in the EU, including Deputy Secretary-General for Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and Crisis Response and Managing Director for Crisis Response at the European External Action Service (EEAS). He also served as the Principal Advisor on External Affairs in the Cabinet of the President of the European Council and headed the EU Delegation at the United Nations.
Retiring from NATO in September 2018 after 38 years at the organisation, Jamie Shea has occupied a number of senior positions at NATO across a wide range of areas, including external relations, press and media, and policy planning. As NATO’s spokesperson, he was the face of the Alliance during the Bosnia and Kosovo conflicts. He later worked as the Director of Policy Planning in the private office of former Secretary General Rasmussen during the preparation of NATO’s 2010 Strategic Concept. Shea is also a regular lecturer and conference speaker on NATO and European security affairs.
Peter Singer is a strategist and senior fellow at New America. In the past, he has worked in the US military, the Defence Intelligence Agency, the FBI, and served as coordinator for Obama’s 2008 campaign’s defence policy task force. He is the author of multiple award-winning books, and is considered one of the world’s leading experts on 21st century security issues. He has been named one of the 100 most influential people in defence issues, and by Foreign Policy magazine to their Top 100 Global Thinkers List.
A specialist in the fields of capacity building and prevention of violent extremism, Dolgor Solongo has global experience developing programmes and State policy. Whilst currently in charge of terrorist prevention programmes across Europe, Asia and the Pacific, Ms. Solongo was previously manager of the capacity building programmes for South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. Amongst other work Ms. Solongo has assisted Member States in drafting and anti terrorism laws; organized and substantively led training courses for criminal justice officials on the investigation and prosecution of terrorism cases and related crimes, international cooperation in criminal matters – mutual legal assistance and extradition, countering financing of terrorism, countering the use of internet for terrorist purposes, criminal justice approaches in prevention violent extremism and radicalistaion leading to terrorism, gender mainstreaming in terrorism prevention and other specialized subject areas.
In her current role, Maria-Cristina Stepanescu leads the EU mission tasked with enhancing Somalia’s maritime civilian law enforcement capacity, including counter smuggling and fight against piracy. Stepanescu is a former senior police officer from Romania, and holds extensive experience in the field of civil crisis management, including through participation in various theatres of operations, alongside the UN and the EU, as well as through her activity with the central EU structure for mission planning and leadership in Brussels.
Ambassador Nina Suomalainen from Finland assumed the post of the Head of the OSCE Mission to Skopje in September 2015. Prior to that she was the Deputy Head of the OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and she has previously served as a Senior Adviser to the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities and as an Adviser to the Director of the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR). Suomalainen’s extensive international work experience includes working for the EU and the UN as well as for non-governmental organisations.
During his tenure as Director of Europol, Rob Wainwright has ensured Europol’s position in the EU Policy Cycle for serious and organised crime and secured the establishment of the European Cybercrime Centre, the European Counter Terrorism Centre, and the European Migrant Smuggling Centre. Wainwright’s career began as a British intelligence analyst, focusing on counterterrorism and organised crime. He later served as Head of the UK Liaison Bureau at Europol and Director International of the UK Serious Organised Crime Agency.
Lassina Zerbo has been instrumental in cementing the CTBTO’s position as the world’s centre of excellence for ending nuclear testing, as well as in leading efforts towards the entry into force and universalisation of the Treaty. To further achieve this goal he created a group comprising of internationally-recognised decision-makers and experts to promote and advance the Treaty’s aims. In recognition of his work at the CTBTO and in the disarmament and nuclear proliferation field in general, Zerbo was awarded the 2013 “Arms Control Person of the Year”.
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