Strategic foresight: a zero-sum game? — The EU Strategic Compass and NATO 2030

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Peace, Security & Defence
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Annual peace, security and defence summit

Summary

Ongoing strategic security reviews by NATO and the European Union present an opportunity for both organisations to boost cooperation and strengthen transatlantic security at a time of unprecedented geopolitical challenges, speakers at Friends of Europe’s annual peace, security and defence summit agreed.

“Transatlantic unity and a stronger Europe go hand in hand,” Charles Fries, Deputy Secretary General for Common Security and Defence Policy and Crisis Response at the EU’s External Action Service, told the event. “NATO is and will remain central to the European security architecture … at the same time, we consider that at the EU level we need to take more responsibility for our own security.”

The summit entitled ‘Strategic foresight: a zero-sum game?’ was held in the week when a first draft of the EU’s ‘Strategic Compass’, setting out the Union’s response to the new range of security challenges, was presented to foreign and defence ministers in Brussels. The plan is due to be adopted by EU leaders at the European Council meeting in March.

In parallel, NATO is working on an update of its Strategic Concept to adapt the Alliance to 21st-Century realities. The first major overhaul of strategic thinking since 2010 is scheduled for approval at a summit in Madrid next June. Feeding into it is the NATO 2030 reflection process designed to map the path for the Alliance to become stronger militarily and politically, while taking a more global approach.

Although calls for a stronger European defence role have sometimes triggered anxiety in Washington over duplication of efforts or a weakening of commitment to NATO, Molly Montgomery, Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs of the US State Dept., was upbeat on the new EU blueprint.

“We really have welcomed the launch of the Strategic Compass,” she told the Friends of Europe event in a video link from Washington. “We look forward to having consultations on it as we move forward.”

Montgomery emphasised the current ‘close relations’ between the EU and US, and the ‘shared perception of the threats that we face and how we need to move forward together as a transatlantic alliance’.

China, military mobility, operations and activities, cyber and hybrid, and emerging security challenges, were among the areas Montgomery placed on the US wish list for greater EU- NATO cooperation.

“For us, NATO is the cornerstone of transatlantic security and will always remain so, but we also view the EU as an increasingly important partner,” she said. “We really do believe that a stronger Europe is in US interests, but that it also requires us to ensure that we remain coordinated to ensure that all of these efforts that the EU is undertaking are complementary with NATO.”

Those words dovetailed with Fries’ assertation that: “By getting stronger, the EU will be a better partner for NATO. It is a mutually reinforcing partnership.”

Among the wide range of government and international officials, military commanders, private-sector players and independent experts who participated in the 4 ½ hour event, there was consensus the fast-evolving range of threats – emphasised by the current tension on the borders of Belarus and Ukraine – showed the need for NATO and the EU to work close together, and for Europeans to strengthen their security capabilities to the benefit of both organisations.

“There is an enormous awareness now, including in our public opinion, that the comfortable age that we’ve lived through over several decades has come to an end and the security threats that we face are real, they are palpable,” said João Gomes Cravinho, Portuguese Minister of National Defence. “Collective security through NATO is not the solution to all of the challenges that we face, so we have to have the capacity to respond in other manners, including through the European Union.”

Speakers stressed that upgraded planning and increased cooperation need to be matched with more and better-targeted defence spending to bolster Europe’s security capabilities.

Benedetta Berti, Head of Policy Planning in the Office of the Secretary General at NATO and International Policy and Security Consultant, welcomed a greater European commitment to build up defence forces.

“The important point is this emphasis on capabilities. This is fantastic,” she said. “The more we remain output orientated the better, the more we talk about what can European member states develop together, what kind of capabilities, what kind of concrete input can we use to support our security. That’s much more useful than … institutions, structures.”

That capacity building needs to focus on innovation as new technological developments, such as artificial intelligence, hypersonic weapons, quantum warfare and increasingly complex cyber threats, present a growing challenge.

“Our competitors are shaping the environment, they are competing every day, the threats are permanent, they are boundless, and they are simultaneously used … we have to manage that,” cautioned Gen. Philippe Lavigne, NATO’s Supreme Allied Commander Transformation.

“We need more and more innovation to adapt faster, to be agile and we need innovation coming from our societies, open innovation, in order to continue to get the advantage,” he said in a pre-recorded interview from Allied Command Transformation in Virginia.

The security and defence summit also saw the launch of the executive summary of Friends of Europe’s latest European Defence Study, authored by Senior Fellow Paul Taylor.

In ‘Murky waters: the Black Sea region and European security’, Taylor argues that NATO promised Ukraine and Georgia more than it could deliver by declaring in 2008 that they could one day join the Alliance without saying when or how. When Russia took military action against Georgia in 2008 and Ukraine in 2014, the two countries were left to fend for themselves.

“The truth is that neither Americans nor Europeans are willing to go to war with Russia over Ukraine and Georgia. Nor are they willing to risk rushing them into NATO to test whether President Vladimir Putin is bluffing or not,” Taylor says.

Instead, NATO should help the Ukrainian and Georgian armed forces to strengthen their own deterrence and resilience with training, equipment, more-frequent joint exercises and intelligence sharing.

For its part, the EU needs to develop a comprehensive strategy for the Black Sea region and raise the level of political engagement with Georgia, Ukraine and Moldova in an ‘Eastern Partnership Plus’.

2021 Peace, Security & Defence Summit.

About

About

New times require new approaches. NATO and the European Union must stay ahead of the game or risk falling behind. Amidst a European and global recovery from the coronavirus pandemic, the emerging geopolitical environment and our increasingly digitalised world, both institutions have faced the fact that it is time to set new strategies to confront novel and increasing threats.

The EU has reaffirmed its objective to work towards a strategic autonomy that allows the Union to be a stronger global partner; to do so, it is preparing a Strategic Compass, set to launch in early 2022, that will help define what kind of security and defence actor the EU wants to be and identify the right objectives and concrete goals for its policies. Meanwhile, NATO has embarked on its NATO 2030 initiative, looking at how to adapt to the new environment and remain ready to face tomorrow’s challenges. Both initiatives highlight the importance of working with likeminded partners towards these objectives, but how do the EU Strategic Compass and NATO 2030 fit together? Are NATO and the EU setting a new – and very much needed – framework for collaboration?

Friends of Europe’s annual peace, security and defence summit will bring together up to 200 senior stakeholders from the world of European and transatlantic security to discuss potential synergies between the EU Strategic Compass and NATO 2030 and bring forward recommendations on how these initiatives should establish collaborative frameworks to work together towards shared objectives.


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PHOTO CREDIT: Alex Berger/Flickr

Schedule

Schedule

MASTERCLASSES - Crisis management missions
Expand MASTERCLASSES - Crisis management missions

A key lesson of the COVID-19 pandemic has been the necessity of collaboration. That is no different in security, where EU-NATO cooperation has repeatedly proven vital. The EU strives to enhance its ability to prevent conflicts and strengthen international peace and security, while NATO seeks to develop its role as a global security provider. There have been overlapping areas of interest, such as in responding to hybrid threats and building resilience, where both institutions have been able to work together more closely, but there have been others, such as developing coordinated strategies to deal with regional crises, where there is still much room for improvement. Both the EU and NATO have networks of influence, tools and levers to shape developments in their eastern and southern neighbourhoods and beyond, but are they using these instruments in the most coordinated and effective way?

This session presents two masterclasses on crisis management in key areas in which EU-NATO collaboration should highlight a common understanding of threats and a balanced division of labour. Our masterclasses, held before the first session, are designed to explore and provide insights on new defence and security opportunities which may not be familiar to all participants. These courses will help participants gain a more intimate understanding of the key issues that will be discussed during the summit’s sessions. Please note that the masterclasses have a limited number of places which will be available on a first come, first served basis. The themes discussed are connected to our series of security reports and are crafted by security experts.

Table 1 – Security in the Black Sea
Table 2 – Security in Libya

Speakers

Paul Taylor

Senior Fellow for Peace, Security and Defence, Friends of Europe; author or “After the Ice”, “Crossing the Wilderness”, and “Murky Waters”

Oksana Antonenko

Director for Global Risk Analysis at Control Risks Group

Mary Fitzgerald

Researcher and Analyst specialising in the Mediterranean region with a particular focus on Libya, Trustee of Friends of Europe and 2013 European Young Leader (EYL40)

OPENING SESSION - Addressing common threats: can the EU and NATO raise their game?
Expand OPENING SESSION - Addressing common threats: can the EU and NATO raise their game?

New times require new approaches. The rise of authoritarian players has taken place in a world where both major and medium-sized powers are increasingly willing to take risks and use military force to coerce rivals, adversaries and neighbours. Other threats and challenges, such as the difficult global recovery from the coronavirus pandemic, an increasingly digitalised world and the need to better prepare for future shocks, have led both the EU and NATO to face the fact that it is time to set new strategies.

The EU is preparing a Strategic Compass, set to launch in early 2022, that will help define what kind of security and defence actor the EU wants to be and identify the right objectives and concrete goals for its policies. Meanwhile, NATO has launched its NATO 2030 initiative, looking at how to adapt to the new environment and remain ready to face tomorrow’s challenges.

As a first step, both institutions have begun the process of identifying key emerging threats. NATO 2030 has singled out 13 key threats, with Russia, China, and emerging and disruptive technologies at the top of its list. On the EU side, the ‘360 degrees analysis of the full range of threats and challenges’ prepared by the European External Action Service remains confidential, as those working on the EU Strategic Compass consider which threats should fall under the Lisbon Treaty’s mutual defence clause as part of the EU’s security ambitions.

  • How can the EU Strategic Compass achieve buy-in from all member states without being reduced to the lowest common denominator?
  • Are the EU and NATO assessing the threat of authoritarian powers correctly, and how have their responses measured up thus far?
  • Where does NATO’s new Strategic Concept need to adapt and modernise the current roles and missions of the alliance?

Speakers

Benedetta Berti Alberti

Head of Policy Planning in the Office of the Secretary General at NATO

Robert Brieger

Chief of Defence Staff of the Austrian Armed Forces

Charles Fries

Deputy Secretary General for Common Security and Defence Policy and Crisis Response at the European External Action Service (EEAS)

Cristina Gallach

Former Spanish State Secretary for Foreign Affairs and former Under Secretary General of the United Nations

Molly Montgomery

Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs at the United States Department of State

Moderator

Jamie Shea

Senior Fellow for Peace, Security and Defense at Friends of Europe, and former Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

SESSION II - The dawn of multilateralism: cooperation or collaboration?
Expand SESSION II - The dawn of multilateralism: cooperation or collaboration?

The EU Strategic Compass aims to set the instruments and strategies for the Union to counter increasing threats and challenges, protect its citizens and enhance its strategic autonomy to become a stronger global partner. EU officials have reiterated that the goal is to achieve strategic autonomy for rather than strategic autonomy from, pointing out that the EU should step up its game to avoid dependency on partners while enhancing the capacity of the alliance and becoming a stronger partner as a result. The Asia-Pacific region has also emerged as a strategic area of interest, highlighting the necessity for the EU and NATO to develop more structured and stronger relationships with partners in the region – whether together or in parallel. NATO 2030 recommends working ‘closer with other multilateral institutions and strategic partners to capitalise on each other’s strengths’ and aims to set a better framework for NATO-EU cooperation. But what are exactly are those ‘strengths’? Both initiatives highlight the importance of working with likeminded partners, but how do the EU Strategic Compass and NATO 2030 fit together?

  • Will NATO and the EU’s revised strategies set a new framework for collaboration?
  • Should the new transatlantic grand bargain on security be framed as an updated division of labour between NATO and the EU?
  • Is NATO taking on too many new roles or producing a more effective alliance?

Speakers

João Gomes Cravinho

Portuguese Minister of Defence

Tania Lațici

Co-lead of NATO2030 Young Leaders and Security and Defence expert at the European External Action Service (EEAS)

Kadi Silde

Undersecretary for Defence Policy at the Estonian Ministry of Defence

John J. Sullivan

Ambassador of the United States of America to the Russian Federation

Moderator

Mary Fitzgerald

Researcher and Analyst specialising in the Mediterranean region with a particular focus on Libya, Trustee of Friends of Europe and 2013 European Young Leader (EYL40)

SESSION III - If the competition is all about technology, science and innovation, how prepared are we?
Expand SESSION III - If the competition is all about technology, science and innovation, how prepared are we?

Recent technological developments have brought necessary advancements and progress, but they have also come with their fair share of security challenges. The security impact of these developments is not limited to state competition, especially in light of the democratisation of lethal and disruptive technologies that will be in the hands of non-state actors, private companies and individuals. The widespread use of Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality will continue to radically change the ways in which citizens interact with information, while at the same time creating new weaknesses to be exploited by internal attacks and intelligence operations. Future security challenges will be more disparate as a result.

The post-pandemic environment underscored the need for resilient supply chains to make use of the aforementioned technological developments and the necessity to absorb best practices and lessons learnt. It is also a prime opportunity for the EU and NATO to influence each other’s reflection processes and work together more closely.

  • How resilient are Western partners in terms of technology, science and innovation?
  • What are the EU’s technological strengths and weaknesses?
  • Are authoritarian regimes really out-competing democracies in the high-tech challenge?

Speakers

Jane Frankland

Best-selling author of IN Security: Why a Failure to Attract and Retain Women in Cybersecurity is Making Us All Less Safe and women’s activist

General Philippe Lavigne

Supreme Allied Commander Transformation at NATO

Pierre Pozzi Belforti

Chairman and CEO of Worldstone and Aerendir Global Technologies

Andrea G. Rodríguez

Research Fellow and Project Manager at the Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB)

Moderator

Jamie Shea

Senior Fellow for Peace, Security and Defense at Friends of Europe, and former Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

End of the summit
Speakers

Speakers

Oksana Antonenko
Oksana Antonenko

Director for Global Risk Analysis at Control Risks Group

Show more information on Oksana Antonenko

In her current role, Oksana Antonenko advises senior decision-makers in private and public sectors on political, regularity and security risks. She spent over 25 years analysing Russian politics and foreign policy at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, London School of Economics and Harvard Kennedy School of Government. She has worked extensively on regional cooperation and security challenges in the Black Sea region, including conflicts in the Caucasus, Turkey-Russia relations and Ukraine’s security challenges. Antonenko is a Global Fellow at the Kennan Institute in Washington DC and a member of the EU-Russia Expert Group on Foreign Policy.

Benedetta Berti
Benedetta Berti Alberti

Head of Policy Planning in the Office of the Secretary General at NATO

Show more information on Benedetta Berti Alberti

Benedetta Berti is a foreign policy and security researcher, analyst, consultant, author and lecturer. Her work focuses on armed groups and internal wars. Berti is the author of four books, including “Armed Political Organizations: From Conflict to Integration” (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013) and her work and research have appeared in various publications, including Al-Jazeera, Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs magazine, The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, among others. An Eisenhower Global Fellow and a TED Senior Fellow, Berti is also Associate Researcher at the Institute for European Studies at Vrije Universiteit Brussels and a Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute.

General Robert Brieger
Robert Brieger

Chief of Defence Staff of the Austrian Armed Forces

Show more information on Robert Brieger

As an officer of the armoured corps, General Robert Brieger has worked on various assignments in the Austrian Federal Ministry of Defence. In addition to having previously served as the former chief of staff of the Minister of Defence, Brieger is the former head of the Logistics Planning and Coordination Division and of the Operational Requirements Directorate. He was appointed force commander of the EU-led Operation EUFOR ALTHEA in Bosnia and Herzegovina, prior to which he was also the Austrian contingent in Kosovo and chief of staff of the 9th Armoured Infantry Brigade in Lower Austria.

Photo of João Gomes Cravinho
João Gomes Cravinho

Portuguese Minister of Defence

Show more information on João Gomes Cravinho

João Gomes Cravinho is a seasoned Portuguese diplomat and politician. Prior to his current appointment, Gomes Cravinho focused his attention on the world’s top emerging markets, acting as the EU ambassador to India and Brazil. He also served as the secretary of state for foreign affairs and cooperation in Portugal. Earlier in his career, he was a lecturer on international relations at the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra, as well as a guest teacher at ISCTE – Lisbon University Institute and NOVA University Lisbon. He has also authored a book, “Visões do Mundo”, as well as numerous articles in specialised academic publications and newspapers.

Mary Fitzgerald
Mary Fitzgerald

Researcher and Analyst specialising in the Mediterranean region with a particular focus on Libya, Trustee of Friends of Europe and 2013 European Young Leader (EYL40)

Show more information on Mary Fitzgerald

Mary Fitzgerald is a researcher and analyst specialising in the Mediterranean region with a particular focus on Libya. She has consulted for a number of international organisations including in the areas of peace building and civil society.

She has worked with the International Crisis Group (ICG), the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) among others. She is a Non-Resident Scholar at the Middle East Institute in Washington DC, an Associate Fellow at the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation, King’s College London, and an Associate Fellow at ISPI in Milan. Mary has also worked on wider initiatives with UNESCO, the Anna Lindh Foundation, the British Council and other cultural organisations. Her writing has appeared in publications including Foreign Policy, The New Yorker online, the Washington Post, Financial Times and the Guardian.

Jane Frankland
Jane Frankland

Best-selling author of IN Security: Why a Failure to Attract and Retain Women in Cybersecurity is Making Us All Less Safe and women’s activist

Show more information on Jane Frankland

With over two decades of experience in cybersecurity, Jane Frankland is one of the most celebrated female influencers in the world and has been named a UNESCO trailblazing woman in tech. As the Founder and CEO of KnewStart, Frankland supports women in joining and remaining in the field of cybersecurity. Her mission is to make women in cybersecurity the standard, not the exception. She frequently participates in leading industry events as a keynote speaker and awards judge, and regularly shares her expertise with governments and media. The best-selling author is also currently writing her third book. Previously, Frankland has worked as an executive for world renown consultancies and first built her own global hacking firm in the late 1990s.

Photo of Charles Fries
Charles Fries

Deputy Secretary General for Common Security and Defence Policy and Crisis Response at the European External Action Service (EEAS)

Show more information on Charles Fries

In his current position at the EEAS, Charles Fries is involved in the EU’s strategic compass initiative. A career diplomat, Fries has served as the ambassador of France to Turkey and Morocco and has also held several positions within the French government. He was the advisor for European affairs in the office of former minister of foreign affairs, Alain Juppé, technical advisor in charge of European affairs at the diplomatic cell of former French president, Jacques Chirac, and diplomatic advisor to former French prime minister, François Fillon, in parallel to serving as secretary general of European affairs.

Cristina Gallach
Cristina Gallach

Former Spanish State Secretary for Foreign Affairs and former Under Secretary General of the United Nations

Show more information on Cristina Gallach

Prior to her appointment as state secretary, Cristina Gallach was the high commissioner of the Government of Spain for the 2030 Agenda. She previously headed the Equal Opportunities Office of the Council of the European Union in Brussels and has held several positions at the UN, including under-secretary-general, special advisor to the Secretary-General, head of the Department for Public Information and under-secretary general for communications and public information. Gallach has also previously served as head of public relations and spokesperson for the Council of the European Union.

Tania Lațici
Tania Lațici

Co-lead of NATO2030 Young Leaders and Security and Defence expert at the European External Action Service (EEAS)

Show more information on Tania Lațici

In parallel to her current position at the EEAS, Tania Latici is an Associate Fellow with the Egmont Royal Institute for International Relations and a Non-Resident Fellow at the Center for European Policy Analysis (CEPA), in which roles her work focuses on transatlantic relations. Lațici was also appointed by NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg to co-lead the NATO2030 Young Leaders advisory body to assist the NATO2030 process. A former Denton transatlantic fellow at CEPA, she has also been recognised as a GLOBSEC Young Leader and a Warsaw Security Forum New Security Leader.

General Philippe Lavigne
General Philippe Lavigne

Supreme Allied Commander Transformation at NATO

Show more information on General Philippe Lavigne

Prior to his nomination at NATO, General Philippe Lavigne served as the chief of staff at the French Air and Space Force. He is the former director of the French Chief of Defence’s office and information director within the Joint Staff of the Armed Forces. Between these two postings, Lavigne commanded the Kabul International Airport and supervised the transfer of responsibility for the airport to the Afghan civilian authorities. He previously served as deputy director at the General Secretariat for Defence and National Security in Paris, prior to which he contributed to the planning of peacekeeping and humanitarian operations at the Joint Strategic Planning and Command Operations Centre.

Photo of Molly Montgomery
Molly Montgomery

Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs at the United States Department of State

Show more information on Molly Montgomery

In her current position, Molly Montgomery is responsible for relations with Western Europe and the European Union. Prior to re-joining the Department of State, Montgomery was a Senior Vice President in the Europe practice at Albright Stonebridge Group and a non-resident fellow in the Center on the United States and Europe at the Brookings Institution. Previously, Montgomery spent more than a decade as a career Foreign Service officer. In the White House, she served as Special Advisor to the Vice President for Europe and Eurasia. Her overseas assignments included U.S. Embassies Riga, Sarajevo, and Kabul and U.S. Consulate General Dubai. She also served in the State Department’s Office of Eastern European Affairs and Executive Secretariat.

Pierre Pozzi Belforti
Pierre Pozzi Belforti

Chairman and CEO of Worldstone and Aerendir Global Technologies

Show more information on Pierre Pozzi Belforti

Pierre Pozzi Belforti is a venture capital investor and the Co-Founder and Chairman of Aerendir Global Technologies, a European start-up based in the Silicon Valley, specialised in a revolutionary technology based on human brain signal for a multitude of AI applications, such as anonymous identification, age and gender and anti-robots, in a totally Cloudless way, ensuring each human is in absolute control of its digital and cyber environment. Pozzi Belforti is also a Professor at the Executive Program at Sciences Politiques Paris, HEC Paris and Solvay Business School in Brussels. He is also a member of the Venture Capital Joint Selection Jury on Start Up and Scale Up at HEC – Ecole Polytechnique Paris. He regularly speaks at international conferences and debates, such as the Politico AI Summit 2020, and is the co-author of the book “La fin des manipulateurs – comment mettre au pas les géants de la Silicon Valley”.

Andrea G. Rodríguez
Andrea G. Rodríguez

Research Fellow and Project Manager at the Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB)

Show more information on Andrea G. Rodríguez

Andrea G. Rodríguez is an expert in emerging technologies, whose research focuses on the strategic consequences of quantum information science and artificial intelligence (AI). In addition to her role at CIDOB, she also serves as a member of the Programme Committee at the European Cybersecurity Forum (CYBERSEC) and Lead Researcher at the Global Observatory of Urban Artificial Intelligence (GOUAI), a joint initiative of CIDOB and the cities of Barcelona, Amsterdam and London that aims to support members’ AI policy work with evidence-based knowledge. Rodríguez is a NATO 2030 Young Leader.

Photo of Jamie Shea
Jamie Shea

Senior Fellow for Peace, Security and Defense at Friends of Europe, and former Deputy Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Show more information on Jamie Shea

Retiring from NATO in September 2018 after 38 years at the organisation, Jamie Shea has occupied a number of senior positions at NATO across a wide range of areas, including external relations, press and media, and policy planning. As NATO’s spokesperson, he was the face of the Alliance during the Bosnia and Kosovo conflicts. He later worked as the Director of Policy Planning in the private office of former Secretary General Rasmussen during the preparation of NATO’s 2010 Strategic Concept. Shea is also a regular lecturer and conference speaker on NATO and European security affairs.

Kadi Silde
Kadi Silde

Undersecretary for Defence Policy at the Estonian Ministry of Defence

Show more information on Kadi Silde

Kadi Silde currently leads and coordinates policy planning, NATO and EU matters, and international cooperation at the Estonian Ministry of Defence, where she has also previously served as the deputy director and then director of the policy planning department. Prior to her current role, she worked at the European Commission on the European Defence Fund. During the Estonian Council Presidency, Silde was in charge of defence matters and served as the coordinator for the Ministry of Defence at the Permanent Representation of the EU. Silde has been awarded a Cross of Merit for her contribution to developing NATO policy in 2015 and to Estonia’s EU Council Presidency in 2018.

John J. Sullivan
John J. Sullivan

Ambassador of the United States of America to the Russian Federation

Show more information on John J. Sullivan

chair of the global law firm’s national security practice, during which time he also served as chairman of the US-Iraq Business Dialogue. Sullivan has previously held senior positions at the US Justice, Defense and Commerce Departments, most notably as the deputy secretary of commerce and the general counsel of the Department of Commerce.

Photo of Paul Taylor
Paul Taylor

Senior Fellow for Peace, Security and Defence, Friends of Europe; author or “After the Ice”, “Crossing the Wilderness”, and “Murky Waters”

Show more information on Paul Taylor

Paul is a Senior Fellow at Friends of Europe and the author of Friends of Europe’s European Defence Cooperation report series. A Paris-based journalist, he also writes the “Europe at Large” column for Politico. He previously spent four decades working for Reuters as a foreign correspondent in Paris, Tehran, Bonn and Brussels, as bureau chief in Israel/Palestine, Berlin and Brussels, as chief correspondent in France, as diplomatic editor in London, and finally as European affairs editor. His assignments have included covering the Iranian revolution, the Cold War Euromissile crisis, the 1991 Gulf War, German reunification, the Maastricht summit, France in the 1990s, EU enlargement, the Eurozone crisis and the fall of the Muslim Brotherhood government in Egypt.

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